If possible, I strongly recommend using SHA-384, although I'm not sure if there are any potential compatibility challenges in doing so.

Like SHA-512, SHA-384 uses the same 512-bit internal state size, but because SHA-384 only exposes 384 bits of of this internal state in the digest, it's immune to length extension attacks:

From page 87 of *Cryptography Engineering* by Niels Ferguson, Bruce Schneier, and Tadayoshi Kohno:

"""
There is another fix to some of these weaknesses with the SHA-2 family of iterative hash functions: Truncate the output. If a hash function produces n-bit outputs, only use the first n - s bit as the hash value for some positive s. In fact, SHA-224 and SHA-384 both already do this; SHA-224 is roughly SHA-256 with 32 output bits dropped, and SHA-384 is roughly SHA-512 with 128 output bits dropped.
"""

They ultimately recommend using SHA-512 truncated to 256 bits (if you're going to use a SHA-2 hash), but that's not feasible in this case as GPG doesn't support truncated SHA-512.

In terms of standard SHA-2 family hash functions supported by GPG, SHA-384 is the best option in my opinion.

Note that I don't recommend SHA-224 as its 256-bit internal state size is too small by modern standards. SHA-384/SHA-512 are also considerably faster than SHA-224/SHA-256 when it comes to 64-bit software implementations.

If possible, I strongly recommend using SHA-384, although I'm not sure if there are any potential compatibility challenges in doing so.

Like SHA-512, SHA-384 uses the same 512-bit internal state size, but because SHA-384 only exposes 384 bits of of this internal state in the digest, it's immune to length extension attacks:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Length_extension_attack

From page 87 of *Cryptography Engineering* by Niels Ferguson, Bruce Schneier, and Tadayoshi Kohno:

"""

There is another fix to some of these weaknesses with the SHA-2 family of iterative hash functions: Truncate the output. If a hash function produces n-bit outputs, only use the first n - s bit as the hash value for some positive s. In fact, SHA-224 and SHA-384 both already do this; SHA-224 is roughly SHA-256 with 32 output bits dropped, and SHA-384 is roughly SHA-512 with 128 output bits dropped.

"""

They ultimately recommend using SHA-512 truncated to 256 bits (if you're going to use a SHA-2 hash), but that's not feasible in this case as GPG doesn't support truncated SHA-512.

In terms of standard SHA-2 family hash functions supported by GPG, SHA-384 is the best option in my opinion.

Note that I don't recommend SHA-224 as its 256-bit internal state size is too small by modern standards. SHA-384/SHA-512 are also considerably faster than SHA-224/SHA-256 when it comes to 64-bit software implementations.